Chinese honorifics and honorific language are words, word constructs, and expressions in the Chinese language that convey self-deprecation, social respect, politeness, or deference.
Categories of honorifics
In general, language referring to oneself exhibits self-deprecating humbleness and is called 謙語 (“humble language”).
Language referring to others shows approval and respect, which is called 敬語 (“respectful language”).
Other types of honorific language use include 婉語 (“indirect language”), 客套語 (“courteous phrases”), and 雅語 (“elegant language”).
- Yuling Pan, Dániel Z. Kádár: Politeness In Historical and Contemporary Chinese. A Comparative Analysis. London / New York: Continuum, 2011; ISBN 978-1-8470-6275-8.